​【動画】鳥はなぜ「V字型」に集団飛行するのか?


V字型になって大空を飛ぶ鳥たち。その姿は圧巻だが、一体なぜ「V」なのだろうか?


高性能のGPSセンサーを使ったV字型飛行メカニズムの研究で、鳥の飛行モデルの仕組みがいかに正確なのかが明らかになった。絶滅危惧種でもあるホオアカトキの群れが飛ぶ様子を追って観察したところ、鳥はそれぞれ自分の前を飛ぶ鳥から距離にして4フィート(約1.2メートル)、角度は45度後ろの位置をキープしていることがわかった。

約1.2メートル/45度という位置は、前を飛ぶ鳥が羽ばたくことによって起こす上昇気流をキャッチする絶好のポイントだという。また研究では、タイミングの正確さも研究者を驚かせた。<USA Today>では、「ホオアカトキは羽ばたきをコントロールするので、自分の前を行く鳥と同じように飛ぶことができ」、さらに必要に応じて(=前の鳥の羽ばたきの変化に合わせて)羽ばたきを瞬時に調節すると説明している。

研究者のスティーヴン・ポルトガル氏は英BBCに対し、「ホオアカトキは非常に優れた能力を備えている」と驚きを隠さない。
「自分の前を飛ぶ鳥を通じて、何が起きているかを察知できるんです。(飛行するのに)良い気流がどこから来るのかや、群れでの自分の完璧なポジションはどこか、といったことも把握します」

【動画】鳥がV字に飛ぶ理由を検証した動画
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/01/15/birds-flying-v-formation/4475687/


<USA Today>では、「今回の研究結果は"一連の行動を通じて鳥がエネルギーを温存している"ことを直接証明しているわけではない」としているが、ポルトガル氏は鳥のV字型は自分の後ろを飛ぶ鳥を"いくぶん楽にさせている"と指摘している。前を飛ぶ鳥が起こす気流を最大限に利用しているというわけだ。その仕組みには我々人間も目をつけていて、無人飛行機は燃料を節約する鳥の自然なパターンをモデルにしているそうだ。

自然界で生き抜くため、独自の知恵を備えた動物たち。人間が知らない凄い仕組みがまだまだたくさんありそうだ。

【参照リンク】
・Birds' V-Formation Explained - It's even more impressive than you probably imagined
http://www.newser.com/story/180792/birds-v-formation-explained.html 
・Why birds fly in a V-formation
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/01/15/birds-flying-v-formation/4475687/ 

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15 PHOTOS
困った顔のツノメドリ
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​【動画】鳥はなぜ「V字型」に集団飛行するのか?

Puffin

SEAHOUSES, ENGLAND - JUNE 24:  A Puffin returns to it's nest on a cliff top on June 24, 2011 on Inner Farne, England. The Farne Islands, which are run by the National Trust, are situated two to three miles off the Northumberland coastline. The archipeligo of 16-28 separate islands (depending on the tide) make the summer home to approximately 100,000 pairs of breeding seabirds including around 36,000 Puffins, 32,000 Guillemots and 2,000 pairs of Arctic Terns. The species of birds which nest in internationally important numbers include Shag, Sandwich Tern and Arctic Tern. The coastline around The Farnes are also the breeding ground to one of Europe's largest Grey Seal colonies with around 4,000 adults giving birth to 1500 pups every year.

SKOMER ISLAND, UNITED KINGDOM - JULY 20:  An adult Puffin flaps its wings on Skomer Island on July 20, 2010 in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The island which has the biggest Puffin colony in Southern Britain plays host to over 10,000 Puffins, who come from April to the end of July to breed. The small island, off the coast of southwest Wales and managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales, is one of the most important and accessible seabird breeding sites in Europe and has become a Mecca for wildlife and bird lovers. As well as the Puffins the island is also home to a large breeding seabird population, including Manx Shearwaters, Guillemots, and Razorbills as well as birds of prey including Owls, Kestrels and Falcons. As a result Skomer is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. Much of Skomer has also been designated an Ancient Monument and it is also surrounded by a Marine Nature Reserve.

SKOMER ISLAND, UNITED KINGDOM - JULY 20:  An adult Puffin watches from the cliff tops on Skomer Island on July 20, 2010 in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The island which has the biggest Puffin colony in Southern Britain plays host to over 10,000 Puffins, who come from April to the end of July to breed. The small island, off the coast of southwest Wales and managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales, is one of the most important and accessible seabird breeding sites in Europe and has become a Mecca for wildlife and bird lovers. As well as the Puffins the island is also home to a large breeding seabird population, including Manx Shearwaters, Guillemots, and Razorbills as well as birds of prey including Owls, Kestrels and Falcons. As a result Skomer is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. Much of Skomer has also been designated an Ancient Monument and it is also surrounded by a Marine Nature Reserve.

SKOMER ISLAND, UNITED KINGDOM - JULY 20:  An adult Puffin watches from the cliff tops on Skomer Island on July 20, 2010 in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The island which has the biggest Puffin colony in Southern Britain plays host to over 10,000 Puffins, who come from April to the end of July to breed. The small island, off the coast of southwest Wales and managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales, is one of the most important and accessible seabird breeding sites in Europe and has become a Mecca for wildlife and bird lovers. As well as the Puffins the island is also home to a large breeding seabird population, including Manx Shearwaters, Guillemots, and Razorbills as well as birds of prey including Owls, Kestrels and Falcons. As a result Skomer is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. Much of Skomer has also been designated an Ancient Monument and it is also surrounded by a Marine Nature Reserve.

SKOMER ISLAND, UNITED KINGDOM - JULY 20:  An adult Puffin watches from the cliff tops on Skomer Island on July 20, 2010 in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The island which has the biggest Puffin colony in Southern Britain plays host to over 10,000 Puffins, who come from April to the end of July to breed. The small island, off the coast of southwest Wales and managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales, is one of the most important and accessible seabird breeding sites in Europe and has become a Mecca for wildlife and bird lovers. As well as the Puffins the island is also home to a large breeding seabird population, including Manx Shearwaters, Guillemots, and Razorbills as well as birds of prey including Owls, Kestrels and Falcons. As a result Skomer is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. Much of Skomer has also been designated an Ancient Monument and it is also surrounded by a Marine Nature Reserve.

SKOMER ISLAND, UNITED KINGDOM - JULY 20:  An adult Puffin watches from the cliff tops on Skomer Island on July 20, 2010 in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The island which has the biggest Puffin colony in Southern Britain plays host to over 10,000 Puffins, who come from April to the end of July to breed. The small island, off the coast of southwest Wales and managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales, is one of the most important and accessible seabird breeding sites in Europe and has become a Mecca for wildlife and bird lovers. As well as the Puffins the island is also home to a large breeding seabird population, including Manx Shearwaters, Guillemots, and Razorbills as well as birds of prey including Owls, Kestrels and Falcons. As a result Skomer is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. Much of Skomer has also been designated an Ancient Monument and it is also surrounded by a Marine Nature Reserve.

SKOMER ISLAND, UNITED KINGDOM - JULY 20:  An adult Puffin enters a burrow holding sandeels in its beak to feed its cheeks on Skomer Island on July 20, 2010 in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The island which has the biggest Puffin colony in Southern Britain plays host to over 10,000 Puffins, who come from April to the end of July to breed. The small island, off the coast of southwest Wales and managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales, is one of the most important and accessible seabird breeding sites in Europe and has become a Mecca for wildlife and bird lovers. As well as the Puffins the island is also home to a large breeding seabird population, including Manx Shearwaters, Guillemots, and Razorbills as well as birds of prey including Owls, Kestrels and Falcons. As a result Skomer is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. Much of Skomer has also been designated an Ancient Monument and it is also surrounded by a Marine Nature Reserve.

SKOMER ISLAND, UNITED KINGDOM - JULY 20:  An adult Puffin watches from the cliff tops on Skomer Island on July 20, 2010 in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The island which has the biggest Puffin colony in Southern Britain plays host to over 10,000 Puffins, who come from April to the end of July to breed. The small island, off the coast of southwest Wales and managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales, is one of the most important and accessible seabird breeding sites in Europe and has become a Mecca for wildlife and bird lovers. As well as the Puffins the island is also home to a large breeding seabird population, including Manx Shearwaters, Guillemots, and Razorbills as well as birds of prey including Owls, Kestrels and Falcons. As a result Skomer is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. Much of Skomer has also been designated an Ancient Monument and it is also surrounded by a Marine Nature Reserve.

SKOMER ISLAND, UNITED KINGDOM - JULY 20:  An adult Puffin prepares to enter a burrow holding sandeels in its beak to feed its chicks on Skomer Island on July 20, 2010 in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The island which has the biggest Puffin colony in Southern Britain plays host to over 10,000 Puffins, who come from April to the end of July to breed. The small island, off the coast of southwest Wales and managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales, is one of the most important and accessible seabird breeding sites in Europe and has become a Mecca for wildlife and bird lovers. As well as the Puffins the island is also home to a large breeding seabird population, including Manx Shearwaters, Guillemots, and Razorbills as well as birds of prey including Owls, Kestrels and Falcons. As a result Skomer is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. Much of Skomer has also been designated an Ancient Monument and it is also surrounded by a Marine Nature Reserve.

SKOMER ISLAND, UNITED KINGDOM - JULY 20:  An adult Puffin prepares to enter a burrow holding sandeels in its beak to feed its chicks on Skomer Island on July 20, 2010 in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The island which has the biggest Puffin colony in Southern Britain plays host to over 10,000 Puffins, who come from April to the end of July to breed. The small island, off the coast of southwest Wales and managed by the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales, is one of the most important and accessible seabird breeding sites in Europe and has become a Mecca for wildlife and bird lovers. As well as the Puffins the island is also home to a large breeding seabird population, including Manx Shearwaters, Guillemots, and Razorbills as well as birds of prey including Owls, Kestrels and Falcons. As a result Skomer is a National Nature Reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. Much of Skomer has also been designated an Ancient Monument and it is also surrounded by a Marine Nature Reserve.

SEAHOUSES, ENGLAND - JUNE 25:  A Puffin returns to it's nest with a beak full of sand eels on June 25, 2011 on Inner Farne, England. The Farne Islands, which are run by the National Trust, are situated two to three miles off the Northumberland coastline. The archipeligo of 16-28 separate islands (depending on the tide) make the summer home to approximately 100,000 pairs of breeding seabirds including around 36,000 Puffins, 32,000 Guillemots and 2,000 pairs of Arctic Terns. The species of birds which nest in internationally important numbers include Shag, Sandwich Tern and Arctic Tern. The coastline around The Farnes are also the breeding ground to one of Europe's largest Grey Seal colonies with around 4,000 adults giving birth to 1500 pups every year.

SEAHOUSES, ENGLAND - JUNE 24:  A Puffin stands near it's burrow on a cliff top on June 24, 2011 on Inner Farne, England. The Farne Islands, which are run by the National Trust, are situated two to three miles off the Northumberland coastline. The archipeligo of 16-28 separate islands (depending on the tide) make the summer home to approximately 100,000 pairs of breeding seabirds including around 36,000 Puffins, 32,000 Guillemots and 2,000 pairs of Arctic Terns. The species of birds which nest in internationally important numbers include Shag, Sandwich Tern and Arctic Tern. The coastline around The Farnes are also the breeding ground to one of Europe's largest Grey Seal colonies with around 4,000 adults giving birth to 1500 pups every year.

SEAHOUSES, ENGLAND - JUNE 24:  A Puffin stands on a cliff top on June 24, 2011 on Inner Farne, England. The Farne Islands, which are run by the National Trust, are situated two to three miles off the Northumberland coastline. The archipeligo of 16-28 separate islands (depending on the tide) make the summer home to approximately 100,000 pairs of breeding seabirds including around 36,000 Puffins, 32,000 Guillemots and 2,000 pairs of Arctic Terns. The species of birds which nest in internationally important numbers include Shag, Sandwich Tern and Arctic Tern. The coastline around The Farnes are also the breeding ground to one of Europe's largest Grey Seal colonies with around 4,000 adults giving birth to 1500 pups every year.

SEAHOUSES, ENGLAND - JUNE 24:  Puffins stands on a cliff top on June 24, 2011 on Inner Farne, England. The Farne Islands, which are run by the National Trust, are situated two to three miles off the Northumberland coastline. The archipeligo of 16-28 separate islands (depending on the tide) make the summer home to approximately 100,000 pairs of breeding seabirds including around 36,000 Puffins, 32,000 Guillemots and 2,000 pairs of Arctic Terns. The species of birds which nest in internationally important numbers include Shag, Sandwich Tern and Arctic Tern. The coastline around The Farnes are also the breeding ground to one of Europe's largest Grey Seal colonies with around 4,000 adults giving birth to 1500 pups every year.

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11 PHOTOS
ブリストル動物園に動くディノサウルスのオブジェが登場!!
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​【動画】鳥はなぜ「V字型」に集団飛行するのか?

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  A animatronic  dinosaur arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  A animatronic  dinosaur is unwrapped as it arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  Staff at Bristol Zoo move a animatronic Baryonyx dinosaur as it arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  A life size animatronic Tyrannosaurus Rex dinosaur arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  An animatronic Dilophosaurus dinosaur is moved from a lorry as it arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  An animatronic Dilophosaurus dinosaur is moved from a lorry as it arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  A life size animatronic Tyrannosaurus Rex dinosaur arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  A Triceratops dinosaur arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. The twelve dinosaurs - which form part of the zoo's summer exhibition DinoZoo which opens later this month - arrived this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  A triceratops  dinosaur arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  A life size animatronic Tyrannosaurus Rex dinosaur arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

BRISTOL, ENGLAND - MAY 14:  A life size animatronic Tyrannosaurus Rex dinosaur arrives at Bristol Zoo Gardens on May 14, 2012 in Bristol, England. Twelve animatronic dinosaurs arrived at Bristol Zoo Gardens this morning after being transported in crates from Texas, USA. They will form part of the zoo's summer exhibition 'DinoZoo' which opens later this month.

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68 PHOTOS
2013年のセレブベビーが大集合【フォト集】
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​【動画】鳥はなぜ「V字型」に集団飛行するのか?
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